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Canadian study opportunities

Changes to IELTS Academic test requirements give Pakistan’s test takers greater access to Canadian study opportunities.

Changes being introduced by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) to their Student Direct Stream (SDS) English language test requirements will give IELTS Academic test takers from Pakistan greater opportunity to pursue their Canadian study dreams.

This means IELTS Academic test takers will now be considered on their overall English language proficiency rather than their individual skills in Speaking, Writing, Reading and Listening when applying for their study permit through the SDS.

Test takers who completed the IELTS Academic test within the past two years and did not achieve an individual band score of 6.0 in each of the skills will be able to apply to study under the SDS from August 10 in Canada if they achieved an overall Academic band score of 6.0 and meet the other criteria needed for the study permit.

Humayun Bin Akram, Country Director IDP Pakistan, said these changes would be significant for upcoming test takers, as well as past test takers who did not achieve the required score in each skill.

“IELTS Academic test takers in Pakistan will be able to approach their test with greater confidence that each of their strengths will be reflected in their overall English proficiency score,” Mr. Humayun said.

“Our Emerging Futures research highlighted that students around the world view Canada as an attractive and important study destination. We know these changes will open doors for many test takers from Pakistan who have dreams of studying in Canada, and we are looking forward to supporting them as they embark on the next stage of their study journey.”

IDP Pakistan is a leading testing services provider, currently operating in five major cities: Lahore, Islamabad, Karachi, Gujrat, and Faisalabad. We are also expanding to other locations soon, to serve even more communities with our top-notch testing solutions.

The changes come into effect for applications made from 10 August 2023. Test takers looking to assess their eligibility can do so via:


IDP is a proud co-owner of the International English Language Testing System, (IELTS).

IELTS is a pioneer of English language testing. More than 30 years ago, we changed the industry when we launched, and we continue to lead the sector today.

We are innovating our test so technology enhances human connection, not replaces it.

After all, language is human, testing should be as well.

We give our test takers a choice. We are the only high stakes test that offers paper, computer and online options.

With an IELTS score, our test takers can proudly show 11,000 organizations that accept IELTS scores what they are made of.

About IDP

IDP is a leader in global education services.

As an Australian listed company, we employ more than 6,900 people, have operations in 57 countries and our websites attract 100 million visits a year.

We specialize in combining human expertise with our leading digital platform to help people get accepted into their ideal course, take an English language test, or learn English in our schools.

Our teams are side by side with our customers every day, at every step from course search through to starting their dream course or career. Our data insights are relied upon by organizations around the world to help ensure decisions are informed by the diverse needs, challenges, and motivations of students.

Most of all, we are proud of our people. It is our trusted people and processes which help our customers turn their study or English goals into a launchpad for their career.

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بچوں کا غذائی پلان-اُن کی عمر کے مطا بق

بچوں کی صحت کے حوالےسے والدین خصو صاً مائیں بہت زیادہ فکرمند رہتی ہیں۔مائیں ہمیشہ سے بچوں کی اچھی صحت نہ صرف قائم رکھنا چاہتی ہیں بلکہ اِسے مستقل بنیادوں پربرقرار رکھنا اُنکی کوشش بھی ہوتی ہے۔

اچھی صحت کو برقرار رکھنے کے  لئے صحت مند  غذائی پلا ن بے حد ضروری ہے۔غذائیت سے بھرپورغذا  کا حاصل ہے بہترین صحت – غذائیت سے مُراد غذائی اجزاء یعنی کیلوریز ، پروٹین  ،  چکنائی، وٹامنزاور معدنیات ہیں۔بڑھتے ہوئےبچوں کے لئے صحت مندغذا بہت ضروری ہے تاکہ وہ اپنی عمر کےمطابق نشوونُما پاسکیں اور اُن کا وزن معیار کے مطابق ہو۔

بعض اوقات بچے کھا نا نہیں چاہتے یا پھر وہ صرف ایسی غذا کھانا  چاہتےہیں جو کھانے میں مزیدار لیکن صحت کے حوالے سے بہت نقصان دہ  ہو-ایسے موقعوں پر بچوں کو سزا یا انعام کے طور پر کھانے کواستعمال نہ کریں۔ کھانے کے وقت ماحول کو پُرسکون اور خوش گوار بنائیں۔بڑھتے ہوئے بچوں کے جسم کو روزانہ کی بنیاد پر غذائی اجزاء کی ضرورت ہوتی ہے-اس کے لیے بھوک لگنا ضروری نہیں۔دن میں 4 سے 5 بار بچوں کو کھانےکے لیےکچھ نہ کچھ دینا چاہیے۔اس طریقہ کار سے بچوں کو کھیلنے اور بڑھنے کے لیے یقینی طور پر مناسب  توانائی ملتی رہےگی۔


غذائی اجزاء  کی ضرورت :

آپ کے بچے کو کتنی مقدار میں کیلوریزاور پروٹین کی ضرورت ہے۔اس کا انحصار بچے کی عمر اور وزن پر ہوتا ہے۔یہ جاننے کے لئے اپنے بچےکے وزن کو (جوکہ پاونڈ میں ہوگا)2۔2سے تقسیم کریں۔اس طرح بچے کا وزن کلوگرام میں معلوم ہوجائےگا۔


مقدار عمر غذائی اجزاء
100 کیلوریز / کلوگرام پیدائش سے 3 سال  کیلوریز
90 کیلوریز / کلوگرام 4 سے6 سال 
70 کیلوریز / کلوگرام 7 سے 11 سال 
1.2 گرام / کلوگرام پیدائش سے 3 سال  پروٹین  
1.1 گرام / کلوگرام 4 سے6 سال 
1.0      گرام / کلوگرام 7 سے 11 سال 


وٹامنزاور معدنیات :

اگر آپ کا بچہ متوازن غذا کھاتا ہے تو پھر اُسے اضافی وٹامنزیا معدنیات کی ضرورت نہیں۔اپنے بچے کو کسی بھی قسم کے وٹامنز یا معدنیات  دینے سے پہلے ڈاکٹر سے ضرور پوچھیں تاکہ بچے کی  صحت کو کوئی نقصان نہ پہنچے۔



بچوں کے کھانے پینے کی عادات میں تبدیلی یا   بہتری:

تجویز  عادت  ـتبدیلی عمر
کھانے کی ساخت ، شکل اور کھانے کا ذائقہ تبدیل کرتے رہیں تا کہ بچہ کھانے سے بیزار نہ ہو۔ بچے کو ٹھوس غذا  کھلانا  شروع  کرا    دینا چاہئے۔ 1 سال
مختلف اقسام کے کھانے، ذائقہ تبدیل کرکے دیتے رہیں۔


صرف مخصوص ذائقہ والی غذا کا استعمال کرنا  ۔پریشانی کی بات نہیں ہے جب تک بچے کا وزن بڑھنا اور نشو و نما مکمل نہ ہوجائے۔


2 – 3 سال
ہر کھانے یا کھانے کے گروپ کو کچھ دن یا چند ہفتوں میں دوبارہ آزمائیں۔


کھلونےیا دوسرے بچوں کے ساتھ کھیلنا انھیں کھانے سے دور کر سکتا ہے۔ اگر بچہ عام طور پر کچھ چیزیں شوق سے نہیں کھاتا ہے  تو کوئی مسئلہ نہیں۔


4 – 6 سال
کھانے کی  اچھی عادات پر ہمیشہ بچوں کی تعریف کریں البتہ  کھانے کی خراب  عادات کوکبھی  نظر انداز نہ کریں


بچہ عام طور پر اپنی بھوک کے مطابق کھاتا ہے۔ جب بھوک لگتی ہے تو وہ اپنے وزن اور توانائی کی سطح کو برقرار رکھنے کے لئے زیادہ  کھائے گا۔


7 – 11 سال


فوڈ گروپ چوائسز :

مقدار اشیاء فوڈ گروپ
کم از کم دن میں ایک بار کھٹے پھل/ رس دارپھل، ٹماٹر ، آلو اور شملہ مرچ وٹامن سی
کم از کم دن میں ایک بار پالک ، گاجر ، شکر قندی۔ وٹامن اے
2 سال کی عمر تک مکمل کھانا دودھ اور دودھ سے بنی مصنوعات چکنائی(Good Fats) 

2 سال کی عمرکے بعد اپنے بچے کو دودھ اور کم چکنائی والے دودھ سے بنی غذائیں دیں تاکہ مناسب چکنائی بھی بچے کے جسم میں جا سکے۔اس کے علا وہ گوشت ،  مُرغی  اور انڈے بھی بچوں کی خوراک میں شامل کریں۔تلی ہوئی غذائیں اور چکنائی سے بھرپوُر سوئٹ ڈش سے گریز کریں ( سوائے خاص موقعو ں کے)۔


روزانہ کی بنیاد پر بچے کی غذا

    گندم اور کاربوہائیڈریٹ( نشاستہ) سے بنی ہوئی اشیاء:                            زیادہ تر بچوں کو روزانہ  4 سے 5بار خوراک کی ضرورت  ہوتی ہے۔مندرجہ ذیل چارٹ میں بچوں کی عمر کے مطابق خوراک کی اندازہً    مقدار    بتائی   گئی   ہے۔

مقدار خوراک عمر
¼ کپ پاستا ، آلو یا چاول 1-3
½ سے 1سلائس ڈبل روٹی
½ اونس خشک اناج
3/4                                  کپ کپ کیک
3/4                                            کپ پاستا ، آلو یا چاول 4-6                         سال
1                                 سلائس ڈبل  روٹی
اونس3/4        خشک اناج
1                                     عدد چپاتی
1                                 کپ پاستا ، آلو یا چاول 7 -11                         سال
2                                   سلائس ڈبل  روٹی
1-2                                        عدد چپاتی
چھوٹا                                        1                                       عدد کپ کیک

پھل: زیادہ تر بچوں کو روزانہ 2 سے 3 بار پھلوں کی ضرورت ہوتی ہے۔ ایک بار  خوراک دینے کیلئے ہر عمر کے گروپ کیلئے مقدار درج ذیل ہے۔


عمر / گروپ خوراک مقدار
1-3 سال پھل کا گودا ¼ کپ
پھلوں کا رس ¼ کپ
4-6 سال موسم کا کوئی بھی پھل ½ ٹکڑا
پھلوں کا رس ½ کپ
7-11 سال موسم کا کوئی بھی پھل 1-2       عدد
پھلوںکا رس ½ کپ


دودھ ، سبزیاں ، چکنائی اور میٹھے پکوان :

عمر / گروپ خوراک مقدار مقدار
1-3 سال دودھ یا دہی (دن میں      3سے 4  مرتبہ)  ½ سے ¾ کپ
پکی ہوئی سبزیاں(دن میں2-3               مرتبہ                          دیں) ¼ کپ
تیل ، مارجرین ، مکھن ، اور سلاد والی سبزیاں(دن میں  1-3 مرتبہ )  ½ سے 1 کھانے کا چمچ
4-6 سال دودھ یا دہی (دن میں      3سے 4  مرتبہ) ¾کپ
پکی ہوئی سبزیاں(دن میں2-3               مرتبہ   )                        ½کپ
تیل ، مارجرین ، مکھن ، اور سلاد والی سبزیاں (دن میں  1-3 مرتبہ ) 1 کھانے کا چمچ
7-11 سال دودھ یا دہی (دن میں      3سے 4  مرتبہ) 1 کپ
پکی ہوئی سبزیاں(دن میں2-3               مرتبہ                          ) ½کپ
تیل ، مارجرین ، مکھن ، اور سلاد والی سبزیاں (دن میں  1-3 مرتبہ ) 1 کھانے کا چمچ

میٹھی اشیا   کا استعمال :   ایک سرونگ سے مراد ، خوراک کی وہ مقدار جو ایک وقت میں دی جاتی ہے۔ میٹھی اشیا میں عام طور سے آئسکریم ، پڈنگ اور Cookies    بسکٹ اورکیک  )شامل ہوتے ہیں۔ میٹھی اشیا کی ایک سرونگ کی مقدار کو اس طرح پلان کر سکتے ہیں۔ 

1سرونگ :   ½کپ آئسکریم ،  2-3 کوکیز (Biscuit/Cookies) ،½کپ پڈنگ

بچے کی عمر کے اعتبار سے سرونگ کا پلان :

1سے3سال: ہر ہفتے زیادہ سے زیادہ1 سے2سرونگز

4سے6سال: ہر ہفتے زیادہ سے زیادہ3سے4 سرونگز

7سے11سال: ہر ہفتے زیادہ سے زیادہ  4سے5 سرونگز

گوشت / گوشت کے متبادل  غذا    : زیادہ تر بچوں کو ایک  دن 3 بار                یا اس سے زیادہ خوراک کی ضرورت ہوتی ہے۔ ایک خوراک میں ہر عمر کےگروپ کے لئے درج ذیل مقدار کے بارے میں ہے۔

عمر / گروپ خوراک مقدار
1-3 سال انڈا 1عدد
مکھن – 2سال کی عمر  کے بعد 1 کھانے کاچمچ
گوشت – مچھلی / مرغی 1-اونس
اُبلی ہوئی  یاپکائی ہوئی پھلیاں ½ کپ
پنیر ¾ اونس
4-6 سال انڈا 1عدد
مکھن – 2سال کی عمر  کے بعد 2 کھانے کاچمچ
گوشت – مچھلی / مرغی -3اونس
اُبلی ہوئی  یاپکائی ہوئی پھلیاں ½ کپ
پنیر ½ اونس
7-11 سال انڈا 1عدد
مکھن – 2سال کی عمر  کے بعد 1 -2    کھانے کاچمچ
گوشت – مچھلی / مرغی 1-2اونس
اُبلی ہوئی یاپکائی ہوئی پھلیاں 3/1کپ
پنیر 3/1             اونس

نوٹ :- 1-اونس=2 کھانے کے چمچ

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Cognitive Development

Cognitive development

Cognitive Development Children grow and develop rapidly in their first five years across the four main areas of development. These areas are motor (physical), language and communication, cognitive and social/emotional.

Cognitive development means how children think, explore and figure things out. It is the development of knowledge, skills, problem solving and dispositions, which help children to think about and understand the world around them. Brain development is part of cognitive development.

As a parent, it is important to foster your child’s cognitive development as soon as he/she is born because doing so provides the foundation for your child’s success in school and later in life. For example, research shows that children who can distinguish sounds at six months of age are better at acquiring the skills for learning to read at four and five years of age.

To promote your child’s cognitive development, it is important that you actively engage in quality interactions on a daily basis. Examples include:
• Talking with your baby and naming commonly used objects.
• Letting your baby explore toys and move about.
• Singing and reading to your baby.
• Exposing your toddler to books and puzzles.
• Expanding on your child’s interests in specific learning activities. For example, your toddler might show an early interest in animals, so you can take him/her on a trip to the zoological garden to learn more about animals’ habits and lifestyle.
• Answering your child’s “why” questions.
Another way that you can foster your child’s cognitive development is to provide him/her with choices and prompt him/her to make thoughtful decisions. You should also allow your child to explore different ways of solving problems. While you may want to provide some gentle guidance and encouragement, allow your child some time to figure out things, like a new puzzle. This may require some patience on your part, but it will ultimately help him/her to learn.

For more information on how to encourage and support a child’s development, visit the Cognitive Milestones page.

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Social & Emotional Development

Self-Identity in Relation to Others

Infants’ social-emotional development includes an emerging awareness of self and others. Infants demonstrate this foundation in a number of ways. For example, they can respond to their names, point to their body parts when asked, or name members of their families. Through an emerging understanding of other people in their social environment, children gain an understanding of their roles within their families and communities. They also become aware of their own preferences and characteristics and those of others.

Foundation: Identity of Self in Relation to Others

Ability Recognition

Infants’ developing sense of self-efficacy includes an emerging understanding that they can make things happen and that they have particular abilities. Self-efficacy is related to a sense of competency, which has been identified as a basic human need (Connell 1990). The development of children’s sense of self-efficacy may be seen in play or exploratory behaviors when they act on an object to produce a result. For example, they pat a musical toy to make sounds come out. Older infants may demonstrate recognition of ability through “I” statements, such as “I did it” or “I’m good at drawing.”

Foundation: Recognition of Ability

Expression of Emotion

Even early in infancy, children express their emotions through facial expressions, vocalizations, and body language. The later ability to use words to express emotions gives young children a valuable tool in gaining the assistance or social support of others (Saarni and others 2006). Temperament may play a role in children’s expression of emotion. Tronick (1989, 112) described how expression of emotion is related to emotion regulation and communication between the mother and infant: “the emotional expressions of the infant and the caretaker function to allow them to mutually regulate their interactions . . . the infant and the adult are participants in an effective communication system.”

Young children’s expression of positive and negative emotions may play a significant role in their development of social relationships. Positive emotions appeal to social partners and seem to enable relationships to form, while problematic management or expression of negative emotions leads to difficulty in social relationships (Denham and Weissberg 2004).

Foundation: Expression of Emotion


During the first three years of life, children begin to develop the capacity to experience the emotional or psychological state of another person (Zahn-Waxler and Radke-Yarrow 1990). The following definitions of empathy are found in the research literature: “knowing what another person is feeling,” “feeling what another person is feeling,” and “responding compassionately to another’s distress” (Levenson and Ruef 1992, 234). The concept of empathy reflects the social nature of emotion, as it links the feelings of two or more people (Levenson and Ruef 1992). Since human life is relationship-based, one vitally important function of empathy over the life span is to strengthen social bonds (Anderson and Keltner 2002).

Foundation: Empathy

Emotion Regulation

The developing ability to regulate emotions has received increasing attention in the research literature (Eisenberg, Champion, and Ma 2004). Researchers have generated various definitions of emotion regulation, and debate continues as to the most useful and appropriate way to define this concept (Eisenberg and Spinrad 2004). As a construct, emotion regulation reflects the interrelationship of emotions, cognitions, and behaviors (Bell and Wolfe 2004). Young children’s increasing understanding and skill in the use of language is of vital importance in their emotional development, opening new avenues for communicating about and regulating emotions (Campos, Frankel, and Camras 2004) and helping children to negotiate acceptable outcomes to emotionally charged situations in more effective ways.
Emotion regulation skills are important in part because they play a role in how well children are liked by peers and teachers and how socially competent they are perceived to be (National Scientific Council on the Developing Child 2004). Children’s ability to regulate their emotions appropriately can contribute to perceptions of their overall social skills as well as to the extent to which they are liked by peers (Eisenberg and others 1993). Poor emotion regulation can impair children’s thinking, thereby compromising their judgment and decision making (National Scientific Council on the Developing Child 2004). At kindergarten entry, children demonstrate broad variability in their ability to self-regulate (National Research Council and Institute of Medicine 2000).

Foundation: Emotion Regulation

Impulse Control

Children’s developing capacity to control impulses helps them adapt to social situations and follow rules. As infants grow, they become increasingly able to exercise voluntary control over behavior such as waiting for needs to be met, inhibiting potentially hurtful behavior, and acting according to social expectations, including safety rules. Group care settings provide many opportunities for children to practice their impulse-control skills. Peer interactions often offer natural opportunities for young children to practice impulse control, as they make progress in learning about cooperative play and sharing. Young children’s understanding or lack of understanding of requests made of them may be one factor contributing to their responses (Kaler and Kopp 1990).

Foundation: Impulse Control

Social Understanding

During the infant/toddler years, children begin to develop an understanding of the responses, communication, emotional expression, and actions of other people. This development includes infants’ understanding of what to expect from others, how to engage in back-and-forth social interactions, and which social scripts are to be used for which social situations. “At each age, social cognitive understanding contributes to social competence, interpersonal sensitivity, and an awareness of how the self relates to other individuals and groups in a complex social world” (Thompson 2006, 26). Social understanding is particularly important because of the social nature of humans and human life, even in early infancy (Wellman and Lagattuta 2000). Recent research suggests that infants’ and toddlers’ social understanding is related to how often they experience adult communication about the thoughts and emotions of others (Taumoepeau and Ruffman 2008).
Foundation: Social Understanding

Erik Erikson’s Stages of Social-Emotional Development

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Children Interactions with Society

Children Interaction with Adults

Interactions with adults are a frequent and regular part of infants’ daily lives. Infants as young as three months of age have been shown to be able to discriminate between the faces of unfamiliar adults (Barrera and Maurer 1981). Children develop the ability to both respond to adults and engage with them first through predictable interactions in close relationships with parents or other caring adults at home and outside the home. Children use and build upon the skills learned through close relationships to interact with less familiar adults in their lives.
Interactions form the basis for the relationships that are established between teachers and children in the classroom or home and are related to children’s developmental status. How teachers interact with children is at the very heart of early childhood education (Kontos and Wilcox-Herzog 1997, 11).

Foundation: Interactions with Adults

Children Relationships with Adults

Close relationships with adults who provide consistent nurturance strengthen children’s capacity to learn and develop. Moreover, relationships with parents, other family members, caregivers, and teachers provide the key context for infants’ social-emotional development. These special relationships influence the infant’s emerging sense of self and understanding of others. Infants use relationships with adults in many ways: for reassurance that they are safe, for assistance in alleviating distress, for help with emotion regulation, and for social approval or encouragement.
Establishing close relationships with adults is related to children’s emotional security, sense of self, and evolving understanding of the world around them. Concepts from the literature on attachment may be applied to early childhood settings, in considering the infant care teacher’s role in separations and reunions during the day in care, facilitating the child’s exploration, providing comfort, meeting physical needs, modeling positive relationships, and providing support during stressful times (Raikes 1996).

Foundation: Relationships with Adults

Children Interactions with Peers

In early infancy children interact with each other using simple behaviors such as looking at or touching another child. Infants’ social interactions with peers increase in complexity from engaging in repetitive or routine back-and-forth interactions with peers (for example, rolling a ball back and forth) to engaging in cooperative activities such as building a tower of blocks together or acting out different roles during pretend play. Through interactions with peers, infants explore their interest in others and learn about social behavior/social interaction.
Interactions with peers provide the context for social learning and problem solving, including the experience of social exchanges, cooperation, turn-taking, and the demonstration of the beginning of empathy. Social interactions with peers also allow older infants to experiment with different roles in small groups and in different situations such as relating to familiar versus unfamiliar children.
Generally, teachers, need to facilitate the development of a psychologically safe environment that promotes positive social interaction. As children interact openly with their peers, they learn more about each other as individuals, and they begin building a history of interactions.

Foundation: Interaction with Peers

Relationships with Peers

Infants develop close relationships with children they know over a period of time, such as other children in the family child care setting or neighborhood. Relationships with peers provide young children with the opportunity to develop strong social connections. Infants often show a preference for playing and being with friends, as compared with peers with whom they do not have a relationship. Howe’s’ (1983) research suggests that there are distinctive patterns of friendship for the infant, toddler, and preschooler age groups. The three groups vary in the number of friendships, the stability of friendships, and the nature of interaction between friends (for example, the extent to which they involve object exchange or verbal communication).

Foundation: Relationships with Peers

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Eight Stages of Social Development

Children Eight Stages of Social Development

The topic is based on the Eight Stages of Development developed by the psychiatrist, Erik Erikson in 1956. According to Erikson, the socialization process consists of eight phases – the “eight stages of man.” His eight stages of man were formulated, not through experimental work, but through wide-ranging experience in psychotherapy, including extensive experience with children and adolescents from low – as well as upper – and middle – social classes.
Each stage is regarded by Erikson as a “psychosocial crisis,” which arises and demands resolution before the next stage can be satisfactorily negotiated.

Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development

1. Learning Basic Trust Versus Basic Mistrust (Hope)

Learning Basic Trust Versus Basic Mistrust (Hope) chronologically, this is the period of infancy through the first one or two years of life. The child, well – handled, nurtured, and loved, develops trust and security and a basic optimism. Badly handled, he becomes insecure and mistrustful.

2. Learning Autonomy Versus Shame (Will) The second psychosocial crisis

The second psychosocial crisis, Erikson believes, occurs during early childhood, probably between about 18 months or 2 years and 3½ to 4 years of age. The “well – parented” child emerges from this stage sure of himself, elated with his new found control, and proud rather than ashamed. Autonomy is not, however, entirely synonymous with assured self – possession, initiative, and independence but, at least for children in the early part of this psychosocial crisis, includes stormy self – will, tantrums, stubbornness, and negativism. For example, one sees may 2 year olds resolutely folding their arms to prevent their mothers from holding their hands as they cross the street. Also, the sound of “NO” rings through the house or the grocery store.

3. Learning Initiative Versus Guilt (Purpose)

Erikson believes that this third psychosocial crisis occurs during what he calls the “play age,” or the later preschool years (from about 3½ to, in the United States culture, entry into formal school). During it, the healthily developing child learns: (1) to imagine, to broaden his skills through active play of all sorts, including fantasy (2) to cooperate with others (3) to lead as well as to follow. Immobilized by guilt, he is: (1) fearful (2) hangs on the fringes of groups (3) continues to depend unduly on adults and (4) is restricted both in the development of play skills and in imagination.

4. Industry Versus Inferiority (Competence)

Erikson believes that the fourth psychosocial crisis is handled, for better or worse, during what he calls the “school age,” presumably up to and possibly including some of junior high school. Here the child learns to master the more formal skills of life: (1) relating with peers according to rules (2) progressing from free play to play that may be elaborately structured by rules and may demand formal teamwork, such as baseball and (3) mastering social studies, reading, arithmetic. Homework is a necessity, and the need for self-discipline increases yearly. The child who, because of his successive and successful resolutions of earlier psychosocial crisis, is trusting, autonomous, and full of initiative will learn easily enough to be industrious.

5. Learning Identity versus Identity Diffusion (Fidelity),

During the fifth psychosocial crisis (adolescence, from about 13 or 14 to about 20) the child, now an adolescent, learns how to answer satisfactorily and happily the question of “Who am I?” But even the best – adjusted of adolescents experiences some role identity diffusion:
Erikson believes that during successful early adolescence, mature time perspective is developed; the young person acquires self-certainty as opposed to self-consciousness and self-doubt. He comes to experiment with different – usually constructive – roles rather than adopting a “negative identity” (such as delinquency). He actually anticipates achievement, and achieves, rather than being “paralyzed” by feelings of inferiority or by an inadequate time perspective. The successful young adult, for the first time, can experience true intimacy – the sort of intimacy that makes possible good marriage or a genuine and enduring friendship

6. Learning Generativity Versus Self-Absorption (Care) In adulthood

The psychosocial crisis demands generativity, both in the sense of marriage and parenthood, and in the sense of working productively and creatively.

7. Integrity Versus Despair (Wisdom)

If the other seven psychosocial crisis have been successfully resolved, the mature adult develops the peak of adjustment; integrity. He trusts, he is independent and dares the new. He works hard, has found a well – defined role in life, and has developed a self-concept with which he is happy. He can be intimate without strain, guilt, regret, or lack of realism; and he is proud of what he creates – his children, his work, or his hobbies. If one or more of the earlier psychosocial crises have not been resolved, he may view himself and his life with disgust and despair.

These eight stages of man, or the psychosocial crises, are plausible and insightful descriptions of how personality develops but at present they are descriptions only. Helping the child through the various stages and the positive learning that should accompany them is a complex and difficult task, as any worried parent or teacher knows. Search for the best ways of accomplishing this task accounts for much of the research in the field of child development. Socialization, then is a learning – teaching process that, when successful, results in the human organism’s moving from its infant state of helpless but total egocentricity to its ideal adult state of sensible conformity coupled with independent creativity. | Child Development Institute

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Holistic Learning, is based on the principle of connecting to the Natural world and to the spiritual values

Holistic learning is a methodology in which we prepare students to meet the challenges that they face In their lives and in their academic careers through trials, failures and successes.

1. Pair work OR Group work

Children at times like to work alone and at other times feel frustrated when they get stuck at some place. Here, their peers can help them find a way

2. Choose Skills

We need to focus on the skills that they need in their future. Skills like cooperate, coordinate, collaborate and compromise.

3. Give Guidelines

Give them guidelines as such that they don’t lose their individuality and creativity. Give them open-ended questions instead of close ended, which arouse their critical thinking.

4. Taking on different Roles

They need to collaborate with each other. Let them decide what role they want to take up. Just like we decide on our own.

5. Creative Choices

Let them take ownership and choices

6. Presentable Presentation

Every project is different. So, present it in a new way on a blog, audio visual model, or use the new tech resources.

7. Rubric Grading – Self Assessment

Let them self-asses on the basis of rubric grading

8. Cross Circular Activities

Integrate subjects as well as let the different level students interact with each other, with students in other cities and countries also.

9. Give the Project a Purpose

When the students will know that their project is going to the help someone then they will be highly motivated.

Trainer – Miss Mahjabeen Rehan

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Five Stages of Child Development

Child development is a process every child goes through. This process involves learning and mastering skills like sitting, walking, talking, skipping, and tying shoes. Children learn these skills, called developmental milestones, during predictable time periods. This is the child’s ability to learn and solve problems.

Five Stages of Child Development

  • During the first month of life, newborns exhibit automatic responses to external stimuli.
  • InfantInfants develop new abilities quickly in the first year of life.
  • Toddler.
  • Preschool.
  • School age.

Development’ means changes in your child’s physical growth. It’s also the changes in your child’s social, emotional, behavior, thinking and communication skills. All of these areas of development are linked, and each depends on and influences the others.

In the first five years of life, experiences and relationships stimulate children’s development, reading millions of connections in their brains. In fact children’s brains develop connections faster in the first five years than at any other time in their lives. This is the time when the foundations for learning, health and behavior throughout life are laid down.

Play: how child development and learning happen

In the early years, play is children’s main way of learning and developing. Play is fun for your child. It also gives your child opportunities to explore, observe, experiment and solve problems.

Your child will need your support and encouragement to do this. But it’s important to aim for a balance between supporting your child and letting your child try things on their own and sometimes make mistakes.

Finding out for themselves about how the world works is a big part of your child’s learning.

Lots of time spent playing, talking, listening and interacting with you helps your child learn key life skills.

These skills include communicating, thinking, solving problems, moving and being with other people and children.

Play is a great relationship builder. Playing with your child sends a simple message – you’re important to me. This message helps children learn about who they are and where they fit in the world.

Factors shaping up child development

Your child’s genes and other factors like healthy eating, physical activity, health and the neighborhood you live in also influence your child’s development and wellbeing.

Healthy Eating
Healthy food gives your child the energy and nutrients they need to grow and develop. It also helps develop their sense of taste. Healthy family food and eating patterns in the early years can set up healthy eating habits for life.

Physical Activity
Being physically active is vital to your child’s health. It gets your child moving, develops motor skills, helps your child think and gives your child an opportunity to explore their world. So your child needs plenty of opportunities for active play, both inside and outside.

Minor childhood illnesses like colds, ear aches and gastroenteritis generally won’t have any long-term effects on development. But disability, developmental delay and chronic or long-term conditions can affect development. Health and disability professionals can help you understand your child’s condition and how it affects development.

Neighborhood and local community
Your child’s development is supported by positive relationships with friends and neighbours, and access to playgrounds, parks, shops and local services like child care, playgroups, kindergartens, schools, health centres and libraries.

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Children Diet Plan – According to Age Group

Parents especially mothers are very much concerned about general health of their children. Mothers are always seeking ways to maintain not only good health but striving to level up on continuous basis.

  • Healthy diet plan is very much important to maintain good health. More nutritious food means more health. Nutrients are calories, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals. For growing children, a healthy diet is vital so he can grow, develop, and stay at a good weight for his age.
  • Sometimes, children may not want to eat or want to eat too many junk or wrong foods. Avoid using food to punish or reward your child. Create a relaxed and happy environment for meals. For growing age children, their bodies need nutrients on a regular basis, even if they do not feel hungry. Offer them meals or snacks 4 to 5 times a day. This will make sure that they have enough fuel to play and grow. Take your child for regular check-ups to make sure he is growing at the proper rate.
  • Nutrient Needs: The amount of calories and protein that your child needs depends on both his age and weight in kilograms. Divide your child’s weight in pounds by 2.2 to figure out what he weighs in kilograms (kg).
Nutrients Age Amount
Calories Birth to Age 3 100 cal / kg.
Age 4 to 6 90 cal / kg .
Age 7 to 11 70 cal / kg.
Protein Birth to Age 3 1.2 gm / kg
Age 4 to 6 1.1 gm / kg
Age 7 to 11 1.00 gm / kg
  • Vitamins and minerals: Your child does not need to take extra vitamins or minerals if he eats a balanced diet. Ask your caregiver before giving your child any vitamin or mineral supplements.


  • Changing or Development Food Habits of Children
Age Habit – Change or Develop Recommendation
1 year Child should start to feed by himself. o    Change the food texture, feel, shape, and taste of the food will keep him from getting bored and refusing to eat.
2 – 3 Years Strong food likes and dislikes. Not a problem until stops gaining weight or growing. o    Give a variety of foods. Try to make eat several things from different food groups.
4-6 years Playing with toys or other children may distract them from meals. If child usually not eat certain foods, not a problem. o    Simply try each food or group of foods again in a few days or few weeks.
7- 11 years Child will usually eat according to his appetite. When hungry he will eat enough to maintain his weight and energy level. o    Appreciate his good eating habits but do not ignore bad eating behavior at meals.



  • Food Group Choices
Food Groups Items Amount / Qty
High vitamin C Citrus Fruits and Juices, Tomatoes, Potatoes and Green Peppers At least One serving per day.
High Vitamin A o    Spinach, winter squash, carrots, or sweet potatoes. At least One serving per day.
High in Fats o    Milk and Dairy Products Full Meal till age 2 years
  • Give your child 2% milk and low fat dairy foods after age 2 to limit saturated fat intake. Also, choose lean meats, fish, and poultry foods for your child. Avoid fried foods and high fat desserts except on special occasions.



  • Breads / Starches: Most children need 5 or more servings per day. One serving is about the amount listed below for each age group.
Age Group   Meals Amount / Qty
1-3 years Pasta, Potatoes or Rice ¼ cup
Slice Bread ½ to 1
o    Dry Cereal ½ ounce
o    Bagel or muffin ¾ cup
4-6 years Pasta, Potatoes or Rice ½ cup
Slice Bread 1
o    Dry Cereal ¾ ounce
o    Bagel or muffin ½  cup
7-11 years Pasta, Potatoes or Rice 1 cup
Slice Bread 2
o    Dry Cereal 1 ounce
o    Bagel or muffin ¾   cup


  • Fruits: Most children need 2 to 3 servings per day. One serving is about the amount listed below for each age group.
Age Group   Meals Amount / Qty
1-3 years Pureed Fruit ¼ cup
Juice ¼ cup
4-6 years o    Canned Fruit ¼ to ½ cup
o    Fresh Fruits ½ piece
o    Juice ½ cup
7-11 years o    Canned Fruit 1  cup
o    Fresh Fruits 1 piece
o    Juice ½ cup


  • Meat / Meat Substitutes: Most children need 3 or more servings per day. One serving is about the amount listed below for each age group.
Age Group   Meals Amount / Qty
1-3 years Egg 1
Butter – After age 2 1 table spoon
Meat – Fish / Poultry 1 ounce
§  Cooked dried beans or legumes ½ cup
o    Cheese ¾ ounce
4-6 years Egg 1
Butter  2 table spoon
Meat – Fish / Poultry 3 – 3 ounce
§  Cooked dried beans or legumes 1/2 cup
o    Cheese 1/2 ounce
7-11 years Egg 1
  Butter – After age 2 1 – 2 table spoon
  Meat – Fish / Poultry 1 – 2 ounce
§  Cooked dried beans or legumes 1/3 cup
o    Cheese 1/3 ounce



Dairy, Vegetables, Fats and Sweet Dishes

Age Group   Meals Amount / Qty
1-3 years Milk or Yoghurt (3 to 4 Serving / day) ½ to ¾ cup
Vegetables (2-3 cooked serving /day) ¼ cup
Fats – oils, margarines, butter, and salad dressings  (1- 3 serving / day) ½ to 1 tbs
4-6 years Milk or Yoghurt (3 to 4 Serving / day) ¾  cup
Vegetables (2-3 cooked serving /day) ¼  to 1/3 cup
Fats – oils, margarines, butter, and salad dressings  (1- 3 serving / day) 1 tbs
7-11 years Milk or Yoghurt (3 to 4 Serving / day) 1 cup
Vegetables (2-3 cooked serving /day) ½ cup
Fats – oils, margarines, butter, and salad dressings  (1- 3 serving / day) 1 tbs


Sweets and Desserts:  The number of servings shown below is the most your child should have per week. One serving is a medium portion, such as 1/8 of a pie, 1/2 cup ice cream, a 3-inch cookie, or 1/2 cup pudding.

  • 1 to 3 years: 1 to 2 servings per week at the most
  • 4 to 6 years: 3 to 4 servings per week at the most
  • 7 to 11 years: 4 to 5 servings per week at the most
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